In order to improve the dust removal efficiency of fine dust electrocoagulation in the mineral processing plant, a particle cyclone corona intensified charging device was proposed. According to the numerical simulation of particles charging based on the COMSOL software, the distribution characteristics and rules of swirl space potential, particle saturation charge and particle charge rate in corona process were obtained, and the strengthening mechanism of corona on dust charge was studied. Taking the dust at the transfer point of raw coal tape as the research object, the experiments of dust charging and electrocoagulation and dust removal were carried out. The results show that there is an obvious potential difference between the electrodes in the corona enhanced charging region, and a high potential was formed at the tip of the electrodes and the wall. The electrode corona can strengthen the particle charging effect, and the particle electric field charging rate is obviously higher than the diffusion charging rate, which is helpful to increase saturation charging capacity of the particles. The experimental results show that the corona action increases the charge-to-mass ratio of dust particles by 550 nC/g. The corona can improve the removal efficiency of dust particles with a particle size of less than 5.0 μm. The particle size range of 0.5 μm to 1.0 μm has the best electrocoagulation and removal efficiency, and the particles number change rate is 63.48%.