In order to measure the relative carrying capacity of mining city resources, the catastrophe progression method was applied to the evaluation of carrying capacity. Based on the concept of integration of production, life and ecology, the evaluation index system of relative resource carrying capacity was constructed, and the evaluation model of relative resource carrying capacity was improved by means of entropy weight-catastrophe progression method. This study measured the relative resource carrying capacity from 2012 to 2021, explored the spatiotemporal differentiation characteristics of mining cities in Anhui Province, and diagnosed the key resistance factors of mining cities combined with the resistance model. The results show that the overall trend of relative comprehensive resource carrying capacity of mining cities in Anhui Province is developing well, with the level rising from low to high, and the overall trend showing high-quality development. Chuzhou has the highest level of comprehensive resource carrying capacity, while Huaibei has the lowest level. The dimensions of production resources and ecological resources are dominated by resistance, with the first resistance factor concentrated in land or water resources.